Contributions of GeneXpert to TB diagnosis in Myanmar

Publication Year 27 Nov 2023

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BACKGROUND: Xpertw MTB/RIF, a rapid, molecular TB diagnostic assay, can detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampin resistance directly from clinical sputum samples in ,2 h with high sensitivity and specificity. The added diagnostic value of Xpert over smear microscopy at a national level in Myanmar has not been previously reported.
METHODS : We evaluated 339,358 Xpert and demographic records captured from January 2015 to December 2018 as part of the Myanmar National TB Program Data Utilization and Connectivity Project to examine the additional diagnostic yield of Xpert relative to smear for the detection of M. tuberculosis for TB diagnosis in Myanmar, with a focus on people living with HIV (PLHIV) and sample type.
RESULT S : Use of Xpert increased TB case detection by 40% compared to smear microscopy results. Among PLHIV, use of Xpert increased TB case detection by almost 100% compared to smear microscopy results. CONCLUS ION: Xpert testing identified more patients with TB than smear microscopy alone, particularly in cohorts with significant proportions of PLHIV. The use of Xpert as a screening tool in countries with a high burden of TB could lead to significantly increased diagnosis of TB at a regional and national level.